A mode is an operational state that a system has been switched to. A normal mode occurs when all parts of a system oscillate with the same frequency.
For example, a standing wave is a continuous form of normal mode. In a standing wave, all the parts are oscillating in the same frequency and phase but each has a different amplitude.
Ultrasound imaging is excellent for diagnosing cysts and other fluids in soft tissue. For ultrasound imaging or ultrasonography, different modes are used to examine the arterial/venous system, heart, pancreas, urinary system, ovaries, spinal cord, joints and more.
Power levels, frequencies used, amplification, and beamforming determine the clarity of the image. These things are controlled by the sonographer, interacting with the properties of the ultrasound machine.
Doppler ultrasound is a medical imaging technique for calculating the relative velocity between two points by measuring the frequency shift of a sound wave transmitted from one point to the other, based on the Doppler effect. Continuous or pulsed Doppler is frequently used to examine cardiovascular blood flow. The combination of routine 2D-mode and Doppler ultrasound allows a complete evaluation of the heart's anatomy and function (including the fetal heart). See also Doppler Fluximetry in Pregnancy.
Doppler ultrasound depends on the fact that if a moving object reflects the ultrasound waves, the echo frequencies are changed. A higher frequency is created if the object is moving toward the probe//transducer and a lower frequency if it is moving away from it. How much the frequency is changed depends upon how fast the object is moving. Doppler ultrasound shows the different rates of blood flow in different colors on a monitor in real time.
The major Doppler parameters are the peak systolic velocity and the end-diastolic velocity. The peak systolic velocity ratio compensates the variability between different patients and instrumentations.
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